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Afterwards, Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn refused to join talks unless the threat of a no-deal exit was ruled out.
The PM said she wanted to approach discussions in a "constructive spirit".
Speaking outside Downing Street after talks on Wednesday night with the Lib Dems, SNP and Plaid Cymru, Mrs May called on MPs to "put self-interest aside".
She must present a new plan for EU withdrawal to Parliament by 21 January.
"It will not be an easy task, but MPs know they have a duty to act in the national interest, reach a consensus and get this done," she said.
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BBC assistant political editor Norman Smith said that Environment Secretary Michael Gove, Cabinet Office Minister David Lidington and Brexit Secretary Steve Barclay will also hold talks with senior opposition politicians.
However, when asked what the government was willing to compromise on, Conservative Party chairman Brandon Lewis refused to give specifics.
He told BBC Radio 4's Today programme that Mrs May would not consider a customs union and that he did not believe a new referendum was "the right way to go".
The UK is due to leave the European Union on 29 March.